Methanol, a potent toxicant in humans, occurs naturally at a low level in most alcoholic beverages without causing harm. However, illicit drinks made from "industrial methylated spirits" [5% (v/v) methanol:95% (v/v) ethanol] can cause severe and even fatal illness. Since documentation of a no-adverse-effect level for methanol is nonexistent in the literature a key question, from the public health perspective, is what is the maximum concentration of methanol in an alcoholic drink that an adult human could consume without risking toxicity due to its methanol content? Published information about methanol-intoxicated patients is reviewed and combined with findings in studies in volunteers given small doses of methanol, as well as occupational exposure limits (OELs), to indicate a tolerable ("safe") daily dose of methanol in an adult as 2 g and a toxic dose as 8 g. The simultaneous ingestion of ethanol has no appreciable effect on the proposed "safe" and "toxic" doses when considering exposure over several hours. Thus, assuming that an adult consumes 4 x 25-ml standard measures of a drink containing 40% alcohol by volume over a period of 2 h, the maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) of methanol in such a drink would be 2% (v/v) by volume. However, this value only allows a safety factor of 4 to cover variation in the volume consumed and for the effects of malnutrition (i.e., folate deficiency), ill health and other personal factors (i.e., ethnicity). In contrast, the current EU general limit for naturally occurring methanol of 10 g methanol/l ethanol [which equates to 0.4% (v/v) methanol at 40% alcohol] provides a greater margin of safety.
1，Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol
Most rubbing alcohol is made from isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol in water. It is common to find isopropyl rubbing alcohol at concentrations from 68% alcohol in water up to 99% alcohol in water. The 70% rubbing alcohol is highly effective as a disinfectant. Additives make this alcohol bitter-tasting, to try to prevent people from drinking it. Isopropyl alcohol is toxic, in part because the body metabolizes it into acetone. Drinking this alcohol can cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, central nervous system depression, organ damage, and potentially coma or death.
2，Ethyl Alcohol Rubbing Alcohol
The other type of rubbing alcohol consists of 97.5-100% denatured ethyl alcohol or ethanol with water. Ethyl alcohol is naturally less toxic than isopropyl alcohol. In fact, it is the alcohol that naturally occurs in wine, beer, and other alcoholic beverages. However, the alcohol is denatured or made undrinkable in rubbing alcohol, both to control its use as an intoxicant and because the alcohol has not been purified to make it safe to drink. In fact, in the US, additives make it as toxic as isopropyl alcohol.
an ounce of methanol can kill you and a third of an ounce causes blindness
That’s not to say that if you dilute rubbing alcohol with water to a reasonable percentage you can mix up your favorite cocktail with it; that couldn’t be farther from the truth. Rubbing alcohol is made with what’s called denatured alcohol, meaning that chemicals have been added to it in order to make it downright poisonous, incredibly bad-tasting, and nauseating, with the express purpose of discouraging recreational consumption.
1，How Dangerous Is It to Consume Rubbing Alcohol?
When it comes to drinking rubbing alcohol, the digestive tract suffers the most, even when only swallowing a small amount. The body metabolizes these extremely high alcohol levels into acetone. If consumed to intoxication, the substance can lead to organ damage. Because it's a central nervous system depressant, side effects can include dizziness, headaches and inebriation. Because it's a gastrointestinal irritant, it can cause nausea, abdominal pain and vomiting blood. In addition, "due to having a higher molecular weight than ethanol, isopropanol, is more intoxicating than ethanol and can produce an altered sensorium, hypotension, hypothermia, and even cardiopulmonary collapse. Hypotension is associated with severe overdose and related to a mortality rate of nearly 45 percent," according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).回收废甲醇
2，Overdosing on Rubbing Alcohol: Can You Die from Drinking It?
For someone who wants to get drunk as fast as possible, yes, isopropyl alcohol will do the trick. According to the NCBI, "nearly 80 percent is absorbed [into the bloodstream] within 30 minutes of ingestion." The effects kick in rapidly.
3，The type of alcohol that rubbing alcohol is made with (isopropyl alcohol) is metabolized differently by your body than the type of alcohol in beer, wine, and liquor (ethyl alcohol), so, according to the Betty Ford Center, drinking even a small amount of rubbing alcohol can have potentially fatal consequences. All alcohols are potentially deadly if you drink enough over a short period of time, but rubbing alcohol is generally 70-percent pure alcohol, or 140 proof. As little as eight ounces can be lethal